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What is perfusion? Your questions answered!

Updated: Apr 28, 2022

Thank you for visiting Tokai Hit's perfusion website.

If you arrived at this article, I am guessing you have one the following problems:

  • I often hear about perfusion culture these days, but what exactly is it?

  • I do not understand perfusion culture at all, please help!

  • I'm aware of the process, but do we actually need perfusion?

In this article, I will thoroughly explain what I was wondering at the time when I first started out in perfusion, as well as when I was immersed in perfusion experiments and equipment development with the help of my current knowledge.

Table of Contents for this article

  1. The meaning of perfusion

  2. Why perfusion is needed

  3. What can we do

  4. Summary

1. The meaning of perfusion

If you search for ‘perfusion’ in Google, you’ll see that it’s a word meaning ‘Per’ fusion: ‘pur’, in this context, means ‘to pour’ all the time. In other words, perfusion is a condition that requires something being continually poured into something, for the entirety of the process.

When we add the ‘culture’ part of ‘perfusion culture’, the meaning is a little more nuanced: a suitable definition would be to continue pouring into the thing being cultured while culturing occurs. Typically, since what you continue to pour is medium in the case of culturing, you may also say that ‘perfusion culture’ is to continue pouring medium while culturing.

2. Why perfusion is needed

Has your understanding of perfusion improved a little? Now, I would like to explain the question of why perfusion is necessary in culturing.

One answer is that perfusion is fundamental in a living environment. In the original environment where cells, organoids, and tissues exist, it is almost always nourished by perfusion. In body circulation, blood is supplied through capillaries, and the tissue fluid derived from it flows around the cells. It is thought to be a nutrient supply and plays a pivotal role in the removal of waste products.

In organs, blood flows in from the arteries, circulates organs, and then goes out of the veins, in order to nourish them.

3. What can we do?

Finally, I will briefly introduce what perfusion culture can do:

  • In cell culture, media exchange is unnecessary and the culture period is dramatically increased. Since the medium continues to flow at a constant level, there is no need to replace it every day. In fact, the original medium can be left for several days.

  • It will be possible to culture in an environment close to the living body. It is said that cells, such as vascular endothelial cells, will detect the mechanical stress of perfusion and behave more like how they would do in a biological environment.

- Real-time analysis is possible with inlet and exit controls

Perfusion targets include cells, organoids, tissues, and organs and the inlet and outlet liquids can be directly controlled. For example, in drug administration experiments, the amount of the drug being administered can be directly controlled. The outlet solution enables analysis over time.

In these ways, I plan to expand the range of experiments that have taken place, so far, with the possibility and hope that further knowledge can be obtained, moving forward..

4. Summary

This time, we introduced a general question when starting to look at perfusion culture.

Perfusion means continual pouring over a long period of time, and the method of the liquid supply differs according to the Chinese language. He explained that almost all living environments are fed by perfusion, and if you reproduce them in vitro, they will be cultured in an environment close to the living body. This, in turn, allows analysis tol be possible in real time. In any case, perfusion methods and objectives vary from research to research, and as a result, the experimental equipment also changes.

If you have any ideas such as “I wish I could perform similar perfusion experiments, even if I only have a little knowledge after reading this article, please contact us via the following link: .

We also offer proposals that combine optimal combinations and development technologies from Tokai Hit's perfusion equipment lineup.

Products that are featured include:

Programmed fluid control system PMD

Perfusion, medium exchange, chemical solution administration, mixing

It is realized with one device.


Pulsating constant pressure, constant pressure, constant flow control

Constant pressure and constant flow supply unit BPU

Constant pressure perfusion can be realized while monitoring the pressure of the flow path.


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